In the development of history of Islamic thought, there are a lot of thinkers who come to adorn discourses of Islamic thought, starting from al-Kindi who is the first Philosopher, al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Suhrawardi until Mulla Shadra who has doctrine about al-hikmah al-illahiyah. They have also created many theories concerning reality, either material world or immaterial world, such as theory of creation, logic, cosmology, epistemology, and the others. They also differ each other in the discourses of their theories particularly in pertaining a concept about which one is fundamental reality between quiddity or existence. Nonetheless, I am going to prove that existence is fundamental reality by giving some strong arguments.
First of all, before I give the argumentations, we have to know first the matter so that we can understand what it is discussing about. The main problem is located at when we observe a single thing in the external world, we can form two concepts which are existence and quiddity. Which one is fundamental reality between them? So this is the main problem. Finally, we have known about it, so we are going to see the proofs.
A proof of it is that quiddity is indifferent in its relation to existence and non-existence (quiddity is in the middle between existence and non-existence). Hence it is not existence and not non-existence, because it is indifferent between them. Accordingly, quiddity needs something that can make itself to exist or brings it out from that state. If it is capable to emerge by itself and assuming that existence is along with its properties, it will violate the law of identity that is impossible. Because of that, existence is fundamental reality as a cause which can brings it out from that state.
Another proof is that we have already known that there is no doubt pertaining God’s unlimited in our mind. If the quiddity is fundamental reality, it necessitates that God has limitation because it is based on the definition of quiddity which is the answer of the question “what is it?” from that question, we will confine something that we ask, because to differentiate every entities in the reality. Hence it can’t be the fundamental reality. Accordingly, existence that doesn’t necessitate the limitation of something even God is the fundamental reality.
The other argumentation which is in favor to the fundamentality of reality of existence is that quiddities are the source of diversity. If quiddity is the fundamental reality, there will be no unity among quiddities because multiplicity qua multiplicity is impossible to find unity. The effect from it is that there will be no predication which signifies unity in existence. Hence the existence is fundamental reality.
Accordingly, based on the argumentations that have mentioned above, that existence which exists by itself, unites the multiplicity of things, and doesn’t necessitate the limitation of something even God is fundamental reality.